Medical Studies

Medical Studies

Humming Mask was named for the proven science of humming to increase Nitric Oxide (NO) in the nose to help improve sleep quality. It has been proven that humming increases NASSAL Nitric Oxide (NO) 15 times more than quite natural breathing.

The Humming Mask takes the work out of this process, while also improving the quantity of NASAL Nitric Oxide (NO) STIMULATION. Thus providing low level NO mixed with air, at a concentration the body can metabolize

In 1995, science discovered that air passing through the nose as breathed increased the parts per billion of Nitric Oxide (NO) low volume of air passing to the nose, brain, lungs and circulatory system. Sinus Physiology: Reference the Paranasal Sinus Pictures

Paranasal Sinus 4 sinus cavities.

  • 2 above the eyes. (Frontal)
  • 2 below the eyes. (Maxillary)
  • 1995 discovered endothelial cells produced NO.
  • Nitric Oxide (NO) production kills pathogens. (Antimicrobial)
  1. 6 years research and testing were involved, to come up with a medical message tool that through sound and frequency vibration, stimulates the Paranasal sinuses to increase their ability, to produce supplemental NO for the Nose, Brain, and Lungs where the Nitric Oxide (NO) combines with blood and Oxygen, (O2). When NO combines with blood it is transported to the rest of the body.
  2. Science behind the HM: Humming and air stimulating the Paranasal sinuses to increase supplemental NO for the Nose, Brain and lungs where it combines with blood for the entire body.
  3. Yoga experts practice for years in order to learn the proper way of breathing so they can teaches us to breath to increase O2. Monks from Tibet Meditate for thousands of hours to achieve a superior state of mind conscientious.
  4. I don’t know about You, but I’m neither motivated nor capable of achieving either of the two practices above. I do understand the importance of increasing my NO to the Nose, Brain and Lungs, to achieve a state of greater health. The problem, I am lazy.
  5. So the choices are, You can Practice for years, either, Yoga or Meditation. Or, purchase a Humming Mask and take the strenuous position of laying back at a 45-180 degree angle in your favorite recliner or bed. Turn on your Humming Mask for 23 minutes and just lay there. This should achieve in weeks, what would take years.
  6. You do this for 30 days and a new you begins to take place and in just 90 days a new you comes to be.
  7. The Humming Mask has released what has always been there, but seldom used. Staring us in the face all along. The Nose, the answer to inner beauty and Anti – Aging.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. *These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent disease

FOUR STUDIES AS REFERENCE

1. Inhaled NO This was taken from 1 of ischemic study: Inhaled Nitric Oxide

Since the recognition of nitric oxide (NO) as a key endothelial-derived vasodilator molecule in 1987, the field of NO research has expanded to encompass many areas of biomedical research. It is now well established that NO is an important signaling molecule throughout the body. The therapeutic potential of inhaled NO as a selective pulmonary vasodilator was suggested in a lamb model of pulmonary hypertension and in patients with pulmonary hypertension in 1991.1,2 Because NO is scavenged by hemoglobin (Hb) on diffusing into the blood and is thereby rapidly inactivated, the vasodilatory effect of inhaled NO is limited largely to the lung. This is in contrast to intravenously infused vasodilators that can cause systemic vasodilation and severe systemic arterial hypotension.

Recent data indicate that inhaled NO can be applied in various diseases. For example, studies suggest that inhaled NO is a safe and effective agent to determine the vasodilatory capacity of the pulmonary vascular bed. This article summarizes the pharmacology and physiology of inhaled NO and reviews the current uses of inhaled NO for the treatment, evaluation, and prevention of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.

Pharmacology and Physiology of Inhaled NO Chemistry of NO Gas

NO is a colorless, odorless gas that is only slightly soluble in water.3 NO and its oxidative byproducts (eg, NO2 and N2O4) are produced by the partial oxidation of atmospheric nitrogen in internal combustion engines, in the burning cinder cones of cigarettes, and in lightning storms. Medical-grade NO gas is produced under carefully controlled conditions, diluted with pure nitrogen, and stored in the absence of oxygen. The recent article by Williams4 provides a review of the chemistry of NO.

Therapeutic Versus Endogenous NO Concentrations in the Airway

Although early studies of inhaled NO in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension used concentrations of 5 to 80 ppm, it has since been realized that concentrations >20 ppm provide little additional hemodynamic benefit in most patients. In some adults with acute respiratory failure, the effective concentrations of inhaled NO required to improve oxygenation can be as low as 10 ppb.5,6 Of note, NO has been detected in exhaled human breath. The majority of exhaled NO in normal humans appears to be derived from nasal bacterial flora (25 to 64 ppb), with lower concentrations measured in the mouth, trachea, and distal airway (1 to 6 ppb).5,7

Mechanism of Action

After inhalation, NO diffuses rapidly across the alveolar-capillary membrane into the subjacent smooth muscle of pulmonary vessels to activate soluble guanylate cyclase (Figure 1). This enzyme mediates many of the biological effects of NO and is responsible for the conversion of GTP to cGMP. Increased intracellular concentrations of cGMP relax smooth muscle via several mechanisms. The physiological actions of cGMP are limited to its area of synthesis by its hydrolysis to GMP by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) or by its export from the cell. Of the 11 reported PDE isozymes, PDE5 is considered to be the most active cGMP-hydrolyzing PDE in smooth muscle (for review, see the work by Rybalkin et al8). PDE5 has a high affinity for cGMP and is selectively inhibited by compounds such as zaprinast, sildenafil, and verdenafil.

Figure 1. NO signaling pathway in the lung. PKG indicates cGMP-dependent protein kinases; NOS, NO synthase; L-arg, L-arginine; sGC, soluble guanylate cyclases; and RSNO, S-nitrosothiol. In addition to its pulmonary vasodilating effects, inhaled NO has several other effects in the lung. For instance, inhaled NO has been shown to cause bronchodilation 9,10 and to possess antiinflammatory11 and

Enhancement of Ventilation-Perfusion Matching by NO Inhalation

The intrapulmonary distribution of ventilation and blood flow [ventilation-perfusion (V/Embedded Image) distribution] is a major determinant of the efficiency of transpulmonary oxygenation and determines the partial pressure of oxygen in systemic arterial blood (Pao2). In the normal lung, a low oxygen tension constricts the vascular bed in hypoxic regions and redistributes blood flow toward lung regions with better ventilation and a higher intra-alveolar partial pressure of oxygen. Inhaled NO enhances this mechanism by increasing blood flow to well-ventilated lung areas that, in some diseases, have an elevated vasomotor tone. This vasodilatory effect of inhaled NO is in marked contrast to intravenously administered vasodilators. Such intravenous agents produce diffuse dilation of the pulmonary vasculature, including areas of nonventilated lung, thereby increasing intrapulmonary shunting and reducing the Pao2 (Figure 2). The beneficial effects of inhaled NO to reduce intrapulmonary shunting and oxygenation have been demonstrated in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.13,14

Figure 2. Differing pathophysiological effects of inhaled pulmonary vasodilators and intravenous vasodilators. SNP indicates sodium nitroprusside; TNG, nitroglycerine; PGI2, prostaglandin I2; Qs/Qt, right-to-left shunt fraction; and SVR, systemic vascular resistance.

Metabolic Fate of Inhaled NO

After inhalation, NO diffuses into the bloodstream and rapidly reacts with oxyhemoglobin to form methemoglobin (metHb) and nitrate and with deoxyhemoglobin to form iron-nitrosyl-Hb. Of note, recent reports describe a possible role for intravascular NO-derived molecules in conserving and stabilizing NO bioactivity that may contribute to the regulation of regional blood flow and oxygen delivery.15,16 Almost 70% of inhaled NO is excreted within 48 hours as nitrate in the urine.17 Blood levels of nitrate have been reported to increase ˜ 4-fold during breathing of 80 ppm NO.15

Clinical Applications of Inhaled NO Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn

Pulmonary hypertension in the newborn may be idiopathic or associated with premature closure of the ductus arteriosus, pneumonia, meconium aspiration, prematurity, or lung hypoplasia.18 In many infants with pulmonary hypertension, right-to-left shunting of venous blood across the patent ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale produces severe systemic hypoxemia. In other patients, closure of these vascular conduits causes right-side heart failure and systemic hypotension. Although treatment with high levels of inspired oxygen, alkalosis, and intravenous vasodilators ameliorates pulmonary hypertension in some infants, in many it does not. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy is lifesaving for some infants with pulmonary hypertension; however, it is costly, invasive, and associated with important morbidities.

In ventilated newborn animals with acute pulmonary hypertension, inhaled NO rapidly increases lung blood flow without causing systemic hypotension.19,20 Similar observations of selective pulmonary vasodilation induced by inhaled NO have been made in ventilated newborn animals with pulmonary hypertension caused by sepsis, lung hypoplasia, or inflammation.21–24 In severely hypoxemic babies with pulmonary hypertension, inhaled NO rapidly increases arterial oxygen tension without causing systemic hypotension.25,26 Randomized controlled studies demonstrated that NO inhalation safely improves arterial oxygen levels and decreases the need for ECMO therapy.27,28 On the basis of these data, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of inhaled NO for the treatment of newborns with hypoxic respiratory failure associated with clinical or echocardiographic evidence of pulmonary hypertension.

Preventing Chronic Lung Disease in the Newborn

Although advanced ventilator and medical therapies such as high-frequency ventilation and exogenous surfactant decrease the airway injury associated with the respiratory care of premature infants, the incidence of chronic lung disease remains high and causes important morbidity. Experimental data indicate that NO decreases vascular cell proliferation and that chronic NO inhalation may decrease the pulmonary vascular disease observed in the newborn lung.12,29 Recently, a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study in a single center demonstrated that 7 days of NO inhalation prevents chronic lung disease in premature infants.30

Safety and Cost-Effectiveness of Inhaled NO in the Newborn

Large clinical trials have demonstrated that NO inhalation is safe in the hypoxemic term newborn. Inhaled NO has not been associated with clinically evident bleeding in babies with pulmonary disease. In premature babies, studies suggest that inhaled NO does not increase the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhages. 30–33

Several studies indicate that NO inhalation is a cost-effective therapy for treating newborns with hypoxic respiratory failure in part because it decreases the need for ECMO.34,35

Diagnostic Use of Inhaled NO Pulmonary Vasoreactivity Testing in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory

Demonstration of a positive response to vasodilating agents in patients with pulmonary hypertension correlates with a favorable long-term clinical outcome.36 Although a number of vasodilators, including intravenous prostacyclin and calcium channel blockers, have been used for diagnostic testing during cardiac catheterization, systemic administration of these agents can produce severe hypotension, increased intrapulmonary right-to-left shunting, and death.37,38 In contrast, recent studies indicate that inhaled NO safely and effectively assesses the capacity for pulmonary vasodilation in pediatric39 and adult patients 40,41 with pulmonary hypertension without causing systemic hypotension and predicts responsiveness to medical vasodilator therapy.42 For example, a >20% decrease in pulmonary artery pressure or pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to inhaled NO accurately predicts a subsequent response to oral vasodilators such as nifedipine.38,43 According to a survey in 2000, 94% of pediatric cardiologists consider inhaled NO to be useful in testing pulmonary vasoreactivity in the cardiac catheterization laboratory.44

Treatment of Perioperative Pulmonary Hypertension With Inhaled NO Congenital Heart Disease

Postoperative pulmonary hypertensive crises are an important cause of morbidity and mortality after surgery for congenital heart disease45 and may be precipitated by diminished NO production resulting from endothelial dysfunction.46 Inhaled NO has been reported to ameliorate the postoperative pulmonary hypertension of congenital heart disease47 and to decrease the need for postoperative ECMO.48 In a randomized double-blind study, Miller and colleagues49 examined the effects of the prophylactic use of inhaled NO in high-risk infants undergoing congenital heart surgery. They reported that compared with placebo, infants who after surgery inhaled 10 ppm NO continuously until just before extubation had fewer pulmonary hypertensive crises and shorter times to eligibility for extubation.

Cardiac Transplantation

Pulmonary hypertension in the cardiac transplant recipient is a major cause of right-side heart failure and early death. Goals in the management of acute right ventricular (RV) failure include preservation of coronary perfusion through maintenance of systemic blood pressure and reducing RV afterload by decreasing the PVR. 50 Inhaled NO has been shown in a small group of patients to selectively reduce PVR and to enhance RV stroke work after cardiac transplantation. 51

Insertion of Left Ventricular Assist Device

RV dysfunction occurs in 20% to 50% of patients after insertion of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD).52 The ability of the RV to pump sufficient quantities of blood to the LVAD is critically related to the intrinsic contractility of the RV and the RV afterload, which is influenced by the PVR. The PVR is usually elevated in patients with long-standing congestive heart failure and can be further increased in the early postoperative period by the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass. A trial of inhaled NO is recommended before implantation of an RV assist device is considered because this invasive procedure may be avoided if there is a salutary response to inhaled NO.53 In a randomized, double-blinded trial, Argenziano and coworkers54 demonstrated the hemodynamic benefits of inhaled NO (decreased pulmonary artery pressure and increased LVAD flow) in LVAD recipients with pulmonary hypertension.

Inhaled NO to Treat Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

Ischemia-reperfusion injury is one of the major causes of early graft failure after lung transplantation. Inhaled NO has been shown to attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury in the lung and other organs in preclinical55 and in clinical studies.56,57 However, a recent randomized, placebo-controlled study demonstrated that inhaling 20 ppm NO beginning 10 minutes after reperfusion does not affect the physiological or clinical outcome of patients after lung transplantation.58

Inhaled NO and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

In early clinical studies of patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, inhaled NO has been shown to produce selective pulmonary vasodilation,13 to decrease pulmonary capillary pressure 59 and pulmonary transvascular albumin flux,60 and to improve oxygenation.13 However, subsequent clinical trials reported disappointing outcome results. Inhaled NO therapy did not affect the duration of ventilatory support or mortality in 2 single-center pilot trials61,62 and in 3 multicenter randomized trials.63–65 Because most patients dying from acute respiratory distress syndrome suffer from multiple organ failure, it is unlikely that the beneficial effects of a lung-selective therapy such as inhaled NO will alter the overall survival rate.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently complicated by pulmonary hypertension and hypoxemia. Systemic hypoxemia in COPD is caused primarily by V?/Embedded Image mismatching and not by intrapulmonary right-to-left shunting (as in acute respiratory distress syndrome). A recent randomized controlled trial demonstrated that the combined use of supplemental oxygen and inhaled NO for a period of 3 months via a portable inspiratory pulsing device caused a greater improvement of pulmonary hemodynamics than supplemental oxygen alone and did not worsen the oxygenation of COPD patients. 66
Inhalation of low levels of NO appears to be safe. The major clinical toxicity is due to the formation of NO2 and methemoglobinemia. A review of the toxicology of inhaled NO has recently been published. 67

Nitrogen Dioxide and Methemoglobinemia

Formation of NO2 during NO breathing is dependent on the NO concentration, inspiratory oxygen concentration (Fio2), and residence time of these gases.68 Increased airway reactivity has been reported in humans after exposures to as low as 1.5 ppm NO2.69 At higher inhaled NO2 doses, pulmonary edema is the major toxicological effect70 and can result in death. 71 In a simulation using a model lung and commercially available ventilators, production of NO2 during NO inhalation at 20 ppm appears to be minimal (<0.7 ppm) even with an Fio2 of 95%.72

Inhaled NO can combine with Hb to form nitrosylhemoglobin, which is rapidly oxidized to metHb. The rates of uptake and release of NO from ferrous (Fe2+) Hb are 105- to 106-fold greater than those of oxygen. Tissue hypoxia can be produced at excessive circulating metHb concentrations.67 The enzyme metHb reductase rapidly converts metHb to Hb in the red blood cell.

Blood metHb concentrations and inspired NO2 concentrations are frequently monitored during clinical administration of inhaled NO. Significant methemoglobinemia or NO2 formation is uncommon in patients breathing NO at doses =80 ppm (see review by Steudel et al73).

Rebound Pulmonary Hypertension

Sudden discontinuation of inhaled NO can cause severe rebound pulmonary hypertension, an increase in intrapulmonary right-to-left shunting, and a decreased Pao2.13 It has been suggested that downregulation of endogenous NO synthesis and/or elevated endothelin-1 levels by inhaled NO is responsible in part for this rebound phenomenon. 74,75 Although the precise underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated, to avoid rebound pulmonary hypertension, a slow, stepwise reduction of the inhaled NO concentration is recommended.

Increased LV Filling Pressure

Inhaled NO has been demonstrated to be a selective pulmonary vasodilator in heart failure patients, although breathing NO was often accompanied by an elevation in LV filling pressure in patients with severe LV dysfunction.37,76 Investigators learned that the elevation in LV filling pressure that occurs with NO breathing is due to the augmentation of filling into a relatively noncompliant LV and is not caused by a negative inotropic effect. 77,78 Nonetheless, it is important to be aware of the possibility that inhaled NO can produce pulmonary vasodilation and may overwhelm a failing LV, thereby producing pulmonary edema.79

Delivery and Monitoring of NO

NO can be safely inhaled when delivered by face mask, by nasal cannula, or via an endotracheal tube. An ideal inhaled NO delivery device requires delivery synchronized with respiration and minimal production of NO2 and should be simple to use with full monitoring capacity (high and low alarms and precise monitoring of NO, NO2, and O2).80 This can be achieved with several commercially available systems. Although NO and NO2 are more accurately measured by chemiluminescence devices, electrochemical detectors have proved adequate for measuring inhaled NO and NO2 levels and are integrated components of several clinical delivery systems.

Future Directions

Randomized clinical trials will unquestionably lead to a more precise definition of the role of inhaled NO in treating various clinical situations in which the physiological benefits of inhaled NO have been suggested by preclinical studies and uncontrolled clinical trials. Multicenter, randomized clinical trials are needed in several areas, including the diagnostic use of inhaled NO and treatment of postoperative pulmonary hypertension after adult cardiac surgery.51

Although most patients breathe NO for a relatively short period of time (hours to days), long-term use of inhaled NO has been reported in a limited number of ambulatory patients with pulmonary hypertension,81,82 pulmonary fibrosis,83 and COPD.66 In this regard, pharmacologically extending the brief half-life of NO in the lung is an attractive strategy. Inhibitors of PDE5 such as zaprinast and sildenafil potentiate and/or prolong the pulmonary vasodilating effects of inhaled NO.84–86 Of note, sildenafil has been shown to be a selective pulmonary vasodilator in patients with pulmonary hypertension.86–88 Exploration of the effects of PDE inhibitors alone and in combination with inhaled NO warrants further studies.

In the last several years, data supporting the extrapulmonary effects of inhaled NO have accumulated. For example, inhaled NO appears to modestly inhibit platelet activation in some species89,90 and to attenuate neutrophil-mediated ischemia-reperfusion injury.55 Decreased bioavailability of NO may contribute to the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease, and inhaled NO has been suggested to modulate the course of this disease.91 In this regard, the treatment of vaso-occlusive crises with inhaled NO in patients with sickle cell disease may become a promising therapy. Preliminary results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial demonstrated beneficial effects of inhaled NO in attenuating the intensity and duration of pain in acute vaso-occlusive crises in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease.92

Conclusions

Inhaled NO is the first vasodilator to produce truly selective pulmonary vasodilation. A large number of laboratory and clinical research studies have been performed to delineate the biochemistry, physiology, side effects, and clinical efficacy of inhaled NO in various diseases of children and adults. Nearly simultaneously, the clinical use of inhaled NO has become widespread. During the past 14 years, inhaled NO has been used to treat pulmonary hypertension and hypoxemia in tens of thousands of pediatric and adult patients worldwide. For many, it is lifesaving. The experimental use of inhaled NO continues to be a unique and fascinating approach to studying and treating diseases as diverse as acute rejection of the transplanted lung and sickle cell crisis. In evaluations of this complex field, it is critical that our view not become colored by a single study of a particular disease state. As with most medical advances, it is the accumulation of a wide-ranging body of clinical research that will eventually determine the place of NO inhalation therapy in our therapeutic armamentarium for a number of diseases.

See site below for references:
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/109/25/3106 2. Targeting NO in subacute restoration treatment

Targeting nitric oxide in the subacute restorative treatment of ischemic stroke.

Henry Ford Hospital, Department of Neurology, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48202, USA.

Abstract INTRODUCTION:

Stroke remains the leading cause of adult disability. Thus, it is imperative to develop restorative therapies for ischemic stroke designed specifically to treat the intact brain tissue to stimulate functional benefit. Therapies targeting amplification of brain repair processes with nitric oxide (NO) donors and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors in preclinical studies are emerging and showing improvement of functional recovery after stroke.

AREAS COVERED: This review will mainly cover the effect of NO donors, which produce NO, and PDE5 inhibitors, which elevate cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP), on neural restorative events in ischemic brain and highlight mechanisms underlying their restorative therapeutic activity.

EXPERT OPINION:During stroke recovery, interwoven restorative events occur in ischemic brain, which include angiogenesis, neurogenesis, oligodendrogenesis, astrogliosis and neurite outgrowth. Emerging preclinical data indicate that restorative therapies targeting multiple parenchymal cells including neural stem cells, cerebral endothelial cells, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neurons would be more effective than agents with a single cell target. Preclinical data suggest that elevated cGMP levels induced by NO donors and PDE5 inhibitors act on cerebral endothelial cells, neural stem cells and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells to enhance stroke-induced angiogenesis, neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis, respectively. These interacting remodeling events collectively improve neurological function after stroke.

3. Humming greatly increases Nasal NO Humming Greatly Increases Nasal Nitric Oxide
Eddie Weitzberg , and Jon O. N. Lundberg
Abstract

The paranasal sinuses are major producers of nitric oxide (NO). We hypothesized that oscillating airflow produced by humming would enhance sinus ventilation and thereby increase nasal NO levels. Ten healthy subjects took part in the study. Nasal NO was measured with a chemiluminescence technique during humming and quiet single-breath exhalations at a fixed flow rate. NO increased 15-fold during humming compared with quiet exhalation. In a two-compartment model of the nose and sinus, oscillating airflow caused a dramatic increase in gas exchange between the cavities. Obstruction of the sinus ostium is a central event in the pathogenesis of sinusitis. Nasal NO measurements during humming may be a useful noninvasive test of sinus NO production and ostial patency. In addition, any therapeutic effects of the improved sinus ventilation caused by humming should be investigated.

Keywords: exhaled sinus sinusitis

The gas nitric oxide (NO) is released in the human respiratory tract. The major part of NO found in exhaled air originates in the nasal airways, and it can be measured noninvasively with different sampling techniques (1). A large production of NO takes place in the paranasal sinuses (2). The sinuses communicate with the nasal cavity through ostia, and the rate of gas exchange between these cavities is dependent, for example, on the size of the ostia (3). Proper ventilation is essential for maintenance of sinus integrity, and blockage of the ostium is a central event in pathogenesis of sinusitis (3, 4).

The concentrations of NO in the healthy sinuses are very high, sometimes more than 20 parts per million (2). We hypothesized that the oscillating airflow produced by humming would speed up the exchange of air between the sinuses and the nasal cavity and thereby increase nasal NO output.

4. NO and the Paranasal sinuses Nitric oxide and the paranasal sinuses.
Lundberg JO1. Author information

Abstract

The discovery within the paranasal sinuses for the production of nitric oxide (NO) has altered the traditional explanations of sinus physiology. This review article reports the ongoing investigation of sinus physiology beginning with the discovery of NO gas production in the paranasal sinuses that occurred in 1995, and the impact that finding has had both in the basic science and clinical arenas. It was shown that healthy paranasal sinus epithelium expresses an inducible NO synthase that continuously generates large amounts of NO, a pluripotent gaseous messenger with potent vasodilating, and antimicrobial activity. This NO can be measured noninvasively in nasally exhaled breath. The role of NO in the sinuses is likely to enhance local host defense mechanisms via direct inhibition of pathogen growth and stimulation of mucociliary activity. The NO concentration in a healthy sinus exceeds those that are needed for antibacterial effects in vitro. In patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and in cystic fibrosis, nasal NO is extremely low. This defect NO generation likely contributes to the great susceptibility to chronic sinusitis in these patients. In addition, the low-nasal NO is of diagnostic value especially in PCD, where nasal NO is very low or absent. Intriguingly, NO gas from the nose and sinuses is inhaled with every breath and reaches the lungs in a more diluted form to enhance pulmonary oxygen uptake via local vasodilation. In this sense NO may be regarded as an “aerocrine” hormone that is produced in the nose and sinuses and transported to a distal site of action with every inhalation.